Iodine Estimation in Salt Samples: A Secondary Data Analysis of Trends from 2017 to 2023 in Tamil Nadu


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Iodine deficiency is a global public health concern that can have severe consequences, including goiter and intellectual disabilities. Iodine fortification of salt is a widely adopted strategy to address this issue. This study analyzes trends in iodine estimation in salt samples in Tamil Nadu, India, from 2017 to 2023 to assess the effectiveness of iodization programs. OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to quantitatively assess the iodine content in salt samples, determine changes in salt iodine content over seven years, and identify regional disparities in iodine levels within Tamil Nadu. MATERIALS AND METHODS : It is a secondary data study. Salt samples were collected according to the National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Program (NIDDCP) guidelines. Samples were drawn from various sources, including rural and urban households and retailers, and analyzed using the iodometric titration method. Health inspectors collected salt samples, and iodine content was quantified in parts per million (ppm) using the iodometric titration method. RESULTS : The study revealed a significant increase in adequately iodized salt from 66% to 96% over the study period. However, only 79% of salt samples contained iodine above 15 ppm, suggesting room for improvement. The study aligns with the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) data, which shows national and state-level improvements in salt iodization.CONCLUSION : While progress in salt iodization is evident, regional and rural-urban disparities persist. Localized strategies in underperforming areas, sustained monitoring, targeted outreach, public awareness campaigns, and collaboration among stakeholders are recommended to ensure consistent iodine levels in salt and bridge disparities.

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